Official Name: Republic of Turkey, in Turkish 'Turkiye Cumhuriyeti', capital is Ankara.
Location: Turkey is located between Europe and Asia, and bordering Black Sea in the north, Mediterranian in the south and the Aegean Sea, Greece and Bulgaria in the West, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaycan, Iran and Iraq in the east and Syria on the southeast side.
In other words Turkey lies at:
latitudes 35° and 43° N, and longit. 25° and 45° E.
Geography and Size: Turkey extends more than 1,600 km (994 mi) from west to east but generally less than 800 km (497 mi) from north to south. Total land area is about 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi), of which 756,816 km2 (292,208 sq mi) are in Asia and 23,764 km2 (9,175 sq mi) in Europe (Thrace). Water area: 9,820 km2 (3,792 sq mi).
The land size is 783,562 km2 (302,535 sqmi) and sea 9,820 km2 (3,792 sq mi). Between outermost points east and west is more than 1600 km but between those points north and south is less than 800 km. The country is largely in Asia, the European Turkey is only 23,764 km2 (9,175 sq mi, only 3%). The south and north mountain chains attain considerable heights, interior plataue rises towards the east and the heights point is the volcanic mount Ararat, the peak 5,166 m. Flora and Fauna
The Asian Turkey is known as Anatolia whereas European Turkey is known as Thrace separated from Anatolia by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.
The official census conducted in 2000 recorded a total population of 67,803,927 inhabitants. To day it is estimated to be around 75 millions.
Cities: The largest city is Istanbul situated in both continents Europe and Asia and has a population of 14 million. The other large cities; Ankara (capital) 3.846 million; Izmir 2.679 million; Bursa 1.559 million; Adana 1.339 million (2009).
Climate: can be characterised as hot, dry summers with mild and wet winters, coastal belts mild whereas interir harsh.
National Flag: Turkish Flag is made up of white five-pointed star and a crescent in the red background. For Turks the crescent moon and star serve as insignia, furthermore crescent is the traditional symbol of Islam. Besides, the symbols underline Turkish heroism in the battle fields, legend has it that the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish soldiers.
National Language: The oficial lanuage is Turkish and people is largely racially Turks and mostly Sunni Muslim. Turkey has a young population, and about 26.2% under 14. People mostly live in the towns with an urban population of 70%.
Turkey is a successor state to the Ottoman Empire, founded on 29 November 1923 after a war of independence fought against Allies and Greece. The war was led by the national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks."
The civil law system was adopted from various Europian countries legal systems notably the Swiss civil code.
Currency: The currency unit in Turkey is 'Turkish Lira (TL)' . The Turkish lira is subdivided into 100 and called kurus (kurush). The banknotes and coins have portraits of Kemal Ataturk. The current banknote denominations in circulation incirculation: 5, 10,20, 50, 100, and 200. Against forgery the denominations have different sizes and depict famous Turkish personalities. There are ATM machines throughout Turkey, particularly in larger cities and tourist centers. Credit cards are accepted by hotels and most merchants.
Electricity: Turkey operates on 220 volts, 50 Hz. Plugs, round-prong and European style. A travel plug adapter is a useful item to have in your suitcase..
Telephone: international: country code - 90, International Call Prefix: 00 and seven digit local phone numbers,(3+4). There are three mobile telephone providers in Turkey, company identification numbers: Turkcell (530-539), Vodafone (540-549) and Avea (500-509 and 550-559) .
Entry Visa: Nationals of USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and EU may obtain their entry visa on arrival, other nationals are required normal procedures.